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I got my B.Sc Marine Science from Diponegoro University, Indonesia. My research for bachelor thesis was about coral genetic diversity using DNA markers at Raja Ampat, West Papua.
The reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) is a species of ray in the family Mobulidae, the largest rays in the world. Among generally recognized species, it is the second-largest species of ray, only surpassed by the giant oceanic manta ray
Bleaching occurs when corals expel their symbiotic zooxanthellae - pigmented, algae-like protozoa that live within the coral's cells. High temperature, pollution or other stresses can cause the coral to expel its zooxanthellae, leading to a lighter or complete loss of color.